Answer: The two differences are as follows:
Answer: Respective Sample speeches are given below:
Answer: In the years 1914-1916, Russia had lost to Austria and Germany and Austria in the eastern front WWI, and had over seven million fatalities by the year 1917. As Russia retreated, the army destroyed buildings and crops to stop the enemy from living off the land. The destruction of buildings and crops resulted in more than three million refugees in Russia.
This situation disgraced the Tsar and the government. The war also impacted industry. By 1916, railway lines broke down there were labor scarcities, small workshops manufacturing essentials went out of business, large grain supplies were sent to feed the army, four and bread became scarce, and there were rampages at bread shops.
The Russian militia had a lot of problems as stated above, on the Eastern Front WWI; however the most conspicuous problem was related to logistics. Most of the Russian soldiers who were fighting the battle were poorly trained and poorly equipped. Russia had lost to Austria and Germany and Austria in the eastern front WWI, and had over seven million fatalities by the year 1917.
If I was a general who had the position to criticize the govt. and bring about change, I would ask for better and improved rail lines, since majority of Russia's supply problems were owing to not utilizing uniform rail gauges, and by bringing better rail line would help in transporting more food and essentials to the Russian troops and these better conditions would enhance non-combatant fatalities and reduce desertion rates.Furthermore, I would encourage better cooperation and coordination amongst generals, since key battles in the eastern front WWI such as Tannenburg were lost owing to generals working, competing with each other rather than in cooperation with each other.
The changes in the mood of the workers were:
I have seen both situations and I feel that although earlier the workers gave vent to their problems by organizing meetings only, now they are fearless, willing to sacrifice their job, rebellious and supporting each other’s action as well as cutting across gender differences.
Answer: Sample accounts of the revolution are given below:
Answer: The people in Central Asia responded enthusiastically to the February 1917, Revolution because it freed them from the oppression of the Tsar’s reign so that they were masters of their land again. They expected to regain their autonomy. However, they responded negatively to the October Revolution, as it brought violence, pillage, extra taxes and another dictatorial power to rule over them. They feared now that their autonomy would be lost.
At the time when both wrote these passages, India was ruled with an iron hand by the British. There were vast caste and class differences and the people were ignorant and backward. They were impressed by the fact that all persons in Russia were treated equally. In spite of them not being very prosperous, they were happily going about their work. Asians and Europeans mingled freely in Russia, whereas it was unthinkable in India at that time.
What the two writers failed to notice was that essentially the people were not free to do as they liked. The Bolsheviks ruled like dictators and followed repressive police to develop the nation quickly. The hard lives and poor working conditions of the people went unnoticed by these travelers.
Answer: Your honor and respected citizens, I have not committed any crime, although I am being tried for inciting rebellion. You know how the price of bread has gone up. My wages accordingly should have been increased so that my family does not starve. Now-a -days, we only eat one meal in a day, as there is no money to buy more food. So what is wrong if I demand increase in wages?
I am forced to work 12 hours a day, which is inhuman. I have demanded an eight hour working day, which is quite reasonable.
Have I committed a crime in that? Now I leave it in your hand to decide whether I am a criminal or not.
I am Gayathri and I am a farmer in morocco. I am a middle level Russian wheat farmer. I'm writing this letter to say something extremely important to you. The collectivization policy which has been implemented to transform the traditional agricultural practices has been a boon to some but a bane to many. Due to this prosperous peasants have been forced to give up their lands and join the large collective farms. The lands which we owned and looked after for years are now not under our control. In addition to this, we are also facing the problem of rapid industrialization. Collectivization is considered to be desirable and socialistic to some. But the actual scenario here is only known to us. As a result of collectivization, many leaders are forcing us to produce more crops using modern machinery and are selling our crops in low costs. we are feeling very reluctant to abandon our individual farms. Kindly understand our situation and do the needful.
I understand your plight and I will definitely help you all to get you out of this situation.
Answer: The social, economic and political conditions in Russia, before 1905 were quite backward. Social inequality was very prominent among the working class. Workers were divided on the basis of their occupation. Workers whose jobs needed skill and training considered themselves on a higher plane than the untrained worker. Workers had strong links to the villages they came from and this also caused a social divide among workers.
Economically Russia was going through a very difficult period. The population had doubled and the economic conditions turned from bad to worse. The government introduced new programs of industrialization which created employment. This Industrialization did not help the workers who were exploited and their living conditions only worsened.Compared to other European nations, Russia was politically backward, during the thirteenth century. All political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914. The Russian peasants formed the Socialist Revolutionary Party in 1900, but as they were not a united group they were not considered to be part of a socialist movement.
Answer: The working population in Russia was different from that of those in other countries in Europe before 1917 in the following ways.
Answer: During the winter of 1917, factory workers faced acute food shortages and extreme cold climate. Dissatisfaction was raging high among the workers.
A factory lockout on the right bank of the river Neva, triggered a strike in the month of February, 1917. 50 other factories joined in the strike. In many factories women led the strike. The government tried many measures to contain the strike. Curfew was Imposed the cavalry and police were called out to suppress the workers. The Dissatisfied worker could not be contained. On the 27th of February, the Police Head Quarters’ were ransacked. The turning point of this revolt was when the government regiments joined the striking workers. They formed the ‘Soviet’ or ‘Council’. The Tsar was advised to abdicate. Thus the February Revolution brought down the monarchy in 1917.
|Events||In the winter of 1917, the situation in Petrograd was grim. There was food shortage in the workers’ quarters.
22 February: Lockout took place at a factory. Workers of factories joined in sympathy. Women also led and participated in the strikes. This came to be called the International Women’s Day. The government imposed a curfew.
24, 25 February: The government called out the cavalry and police to keep an eye on them. 25 February: The government suspended the Duma and politicians spoke against this measure. The people were out with force once again.
27 February: The police headquarters were ransacked.
Cavalry was called out again.
An officer was shot at the barracks of a regiment and other regiments mutinied, voting to join the striking workers gathered to form a Soviet or council. This was the Petrograd Soviet.
A delegation went to meet the Tsar. The military commanders advised him to abdicate.
2 March: The Tsar abdicated.A provisional government was formed by the Soviet and Duma leaders to run the country.
|Effects||Restrictions on public meetings and associations were removed.
Soviets were set up everywhere.
In individual areas, factory committees were formed which began questioning the way industrialists ran their factories.
Soldiers’ committees were formed in the army.
The Provisional Government saw its power declining and Bolshevik influence grew. It decided to take stern measures against the spreading discontent.
It resisted attempts by workers to run factories and arrested leaders.
Peasants and the socialist revolutionary leaders pressed for a redistribution of land.Land committees were formed and peasants seized land between July and September 1917.
No political party was involved in the February Revolution. It was a combined effort of the workers of fifty factories along with women who took up the leadership.
|Events||16th October 1917: Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet to organize seizure.
24th October: Uprising began. Prime Minister Kerenskii left the city to summon troops. Military men loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers. Pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace. In response Military Revolutionary Committee ordered to seize government offices and arrest ministers.
The ‘Aurora’ ship shelled the Winter Palace. Other ships took over strategic points.
By night, the city had been taken over and ministers had surrendered.
All Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd approved the Bolshevik action.
By December: Heavy fighting in Moscow. The Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow-Petrograd area. The people involved were Lenin, the Bolsheviks and pro-government troops.
|Effects||Most industries and banks were nationalised in November 1917.
Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility. Use of old titles was banned.
New uniforms were designed for the army and officials.
Russia became a one-party state.
Trade unions were kept under party control.
A process of centralized planning was introduced. This led to economic growth.
Industrial production increased.
An extended schooling system was developed.Collectivization of farms started.
Lenin led the October Revolution along with Leon Trotskii. Bolshevik supporters in army, Soviets and factories were mobilized for mass struggle. Lenin rose to power and set up a Bolshevik government in Soviet Russia.
Well-to-do peasants were called‘kulaks’ during Stalin’s leadership. As food shortage continued Stalin decided to introduce the Collectivization Program. Under this program, ‘kulaks’ were eliminated. That is land from these well-to-do peasants was forcibly taken and large state-controlled farms were established. This was done to modernize farming and increase production.
The Duma is an elected consultative Parliament, which was set up during the 1905 Revolution. Though the Duma was accepted by the Tsar, they were constantly dismissed by the Tsar and new ones were set up. After the February Revolution when the Monarchy was overthrown, Duma leaders and Soviet leaders formed a Provisional Government in Russia.
Women workers made up 31% of the factory labour in the 1900s. They were paid only half or three-quarters of the men’s wages. During the February Revolution in 1917, many women workers led the strikes. The condition of the women workers continued to be grim until the 1930s. Slowly conditions improved and crèches were set up in factories for the children of women workers.
After, the French Revolution people wanted a transformation in society. Many groups were formed with this intention. One such group was the ‘Liberals’. The Liberals wanted a nation with religious tolerance and individual rights. Though they wanted an elected parliamentary government, they wanted only men of property to have the right to vote. They were against women voting.
Stalin believed that collectivization of agriculture would help in improving grains supplies in Russia. He began collectivization in 1929. All peasants were forced to cultivate in collective farms (kolhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of the collective farm. Many peasants protested such attempts and destroyed livestock to show their anger. Collectivization did not bring the desired results in the food supply situation turned even worse in subsequent years.