# Chapter 6: Population

#### (i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in

(a) the area of departure

(b) the area of arrival

(c) both the area of departure and arrival

(d) none of the above

#### (ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of

(a) high birth rates

(b) high life expectancies

(c) high death rates

(d) more married couples

#### (iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to

(a) the total population of an area

(b) the number of persons added each year

(c) the rate at which the population increases

(d) the number of females per thousand males

#### (iv) According to the Census 2001, a “literate” person is one who

(a) can read and write his/her name

(b) can read and write any language

(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding

(d) knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)

(i) (c) both the area of departure and arrival

(ii) (a) high birth rates

(iii) (b) the number of persons added each year

(iv) (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding

#### (i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?

Answer :The rate of population growth in India declining since 1981 due to the awareness and usage of birth control measures among the citizens.

#### (ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.

Answer : Following are the major components of population growth-

1. Birth rate
2. Death rate
3. Migration
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#### (iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

Age structure- The age structure of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.

Death rate- The death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

Birth rate- The birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.

#### (iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

• Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories.
• Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries).
• Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the nation.
• Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of a population.
• It also changes the demographic of the country.

#### Population growth -

• It is the increase in the number of inhabitants of a region during a specific time period.
• Birth rate and migration are the major causes of the population growth.

#### Population change -

• It is the change in the distribution, composition or size of the population.
• Birth rate, migration, emigration are its major causes.

#### Question 4: What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

(a). The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. An enormous variety of occupations are found in any country.

(b). The percentage of a population that is economically active is an important index of development. The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries.

(c). The higher percentage of the population involved in a primary occupation like agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fishing imply - Less developed country.

(d). We see more development in countries where people move into secondary occupations like manufacturing.

(e). A high percentage of the population involved in a tertiary occupation like Banking, commerce, transport, and administration - implies a highly developed country.

#### Question 5: What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Answer : Following are the advantages of having a healthy population -

1. It will make the nation strong in all spheres.
2. It will help in creating a developed and prosperous nation.
3. It will help in economic growth.
4. The nation can compete globally with all other nations in any sphere of requirement.

#### Question 6: What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?

Answer : The significant features of the National Population Policy 2000 are:

1. It tells that adolescents are one of the major sections of the population that needs greater attention.
2. Besides nutritional requirements, the policy points out the other important needs of adolescents including protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD).
3. It hosts programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriage and child-bearing, education of adolescents about the risks of unprotected sex, making contraceptive services accessible and affordable, providing food supplements, nutritional services, strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.

#### Question : What could be the reason of uneven distribution of population in India?

Answer :Following factors are responsible for uneven distribution of population in India:

1. Unfavorable climatic conditions
2. Moderate to low rainfall
3. Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of the terrain
4. Soil fertility

#### Question : Despite the decline in growth rates, the number of people being added every decade is steadily increasing why?

Answer :India has a very large population. When a low annual rate is applied to a very large population, it yields a large absolute increase. When more than a billion people increase even at a lower rate, the total number being added becomes very large.

#### Question : The sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavourable to females. Find out why this is so?

Answer :Some of the important factors affecting sex ratio in India are:

• Higher mortality of females (young girls, maternal mortality, female infanticide).
• To a certain extent differential undercount.