(d) Tropical Evergreen
(a) 100 cm
(b) 50 cm
(c) 70 cm
(d) less than 50 cm
(d) West Bengal
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nanda deviAnswers :
(i) (d) Tropical Evergreen
(ii) (a) 100 cm
(iii) (c) Odisha
(iv) (a) Manas
Answer :An ecosystem is a community of plants, animals and smaller organisms that live, feed, reproduce and interact in the same area or environment.
Answer :Factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are-
Answer : protected area reserved for the conservation of endangered species of flora (plants) and fauna (animals) in their natural habitat is called a bio-reserve. The Sunderbans in the West Bengal and Nanda Devi in Uttaranchal are the two examples of bio-reserves in India.
Answer :The common animals found in the tropical forests are elephants and monkeys and the common animals found in the montane forests are Kashmir stag and spotted dear.
Flora - The flora of a country consists of plant kingdom of that country. It covers trees in the forests, other flowering and non-flowering trees grown by man, grassland, scrubs, fens, etc.
Fauna - The fauna of a country consists of birds, fish and animals. It also includes amphibians, reptiles, mammals, small insects and worms. The fauna of India is quite rich and varied.
Tropical Evergreen Forests - Evergreen forests (or Tropical Rain Forests) are found on the rainy parts of the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Deciduous Forests -Deciduous forests are found mostly in the eastern parts of the country – northeastern states along the foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa and Chhattisgarh and the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.
Answer : Different types of Vegetation found in India are -
The vegetation of high altitudes are Montane Forests. In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation. The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate. Between 1500 and 3000 metres, temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar, are found.
At higher elevations, temperate grasslands are common. Generally, at more than 3,600 meters above sea level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests. At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation.
Answer :Quite a few animal species are endangered and some have become extinct. The main causes for this major threat to nature are hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes, pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits, introduction of alien species and reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation, which are also responsible for the imbalance.
Answer : India has a rich heritage of flora and fauna because our country is one of the twelve-mega bio-diversity countries of the world. With about 47,000 plant species, India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. There are about 15,000 flowering plants in India, which account for 6 percent in the world’s total number of flowering plants. The country has many non-flowering plants such as ferns, algae and fungi. India also has 89,000 species of animals as well as a rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters.
(i) Areas of Evergreen Forests
(ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests
(iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country.
(i) Green shaded region represents areas of Evergreen Forests
(ii) hatched lines represents areas of Dry Deciduous Forests
(b) Rubber industry
(c) Leather industry
(d) Ayurvedic medicine manufacturing
(e) Paper industry
(f) Glue industry
(g) Fruit and food production industry
(i) Resin extractor
(j) Perfume industry
Answer :Wildlife plays an important role in balancing the environment. Wildlife provides a stability to different processes of the nature. Wildlife and nature have been largely associated with humans for emotional and social reasons. Animals have also been highly useful to us in providing food, clothing and source of income. Wildlife helps in maintaining the eco-logical balance of nature. Wildlife is also considered to be the one of the greatest factors for increase and better development of word trade and increase in national income. It also helps the farmers the most by providing a better way in ploughing and other techniques. Therefore, wildlife is of immense value to all in economic development. Since wildlife is the source of income to many, they play a vital role in their life as the economic factor. Also, many microorganisms and smalls animals like reptiles etc. also help in increasing the fertility of soil and providing a good base for agricultural activities.
Answer :Because the growth of the vegetation depends upon the rainfall and the southern slopes in Himalayan region attracts more rainfall than northern slopes.
Answer :Because the western ghats receives more rainfall due to southwest monsoon winds.
(i) Name the state having maximum area under forest cover.
(ii) Name the union territory having minimum area under forest cover and why?
(ii) Daman & Diu has the minimum area under forest cover because its area is small that is only 102 sq km. So, it is not possible to expand forest area there.
Answer :If the plants and animals disappear from the Earth's surface, then the ecological balance will be disturbed. These animal and plant species, including humans, are all interdependent. Each species has its own place and role to play in the environment and help in the maintaining the ecological balance.
Biodiversity provides our food, cleans our water , provides medicines for curing illness, and even creates the oxygen that we breathe . So, biodiversity is crucial for enabling us to survive and stay healthy. If we reduce the amount of biodiversity there is, by driving many species to extinction, then we cannot expect that nature will be able to keep providing these things for us.
Answer :These forests are Montane forests and found in the higher hilly areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, also in the region of Eastern Himalayas to the east of 88°E longitude including the hills of Assam, West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
Answer :The main concern highlighted in the given news items is killing of animals and actions to protect them.
Answer :various endangered species are: