If the blacks had not forgiven the whites for all their oppression and exploitation and decided to take revenge upon them, there would have been bloodshed everywhere. It could have led to a division of the country and we would not have seen a united and peaceful South Africa that exists now. Fortunately, the black community followed the policy of non-violence in their freedom struggle.
(ii) Nelson Mandela
South Africans call themselves a 'rainbow nation'. Because there are Whites, Black, Coloured people and Indians in South Africa who have different skin colours. But they are living and working together as one people unified like the colours of a rainbow. They have forgotten the racist brutal, repressive past. Now the transformation of South Africa is truly shared by its entire people.
Yes, the story of South African struggle for freedom reminds me of the Indian National Movement.
1. Nature of Colonialism:
similarities: During the 17th and 18th centuries, the trading companies from Europe occupied South Africa forcibly in the same way that they had occupied India.
Dissimilarities : Unlike India a large number of whites had settled in South Africa and become the local rulers.
2. Relationship between Different Communities:
Similarities : The white rulers treated all non-whites as inferiors in both the countries. The whites regarded Indians and Africans inferior uncivilized people.
Dissimilarities : Different religions and regional communities in India were united despite of their diversities. They all believed themselves to be Indians. But in South Africa, different communities like the whites, blacks, coloured people relations are different, they respect for each other.
3. Leadership: Gandhi/Mandela
Similarities : Both were apostles of truth and non-violence.
Dissimilarities : Nelson Mandela was put behind bars and sentenced to life imprisonment. Gandhiji was also put behind the bars several times, but he was not sentenced to life imprisonment.
4. Party that Led the Struggle: ANC/INC
Similarities : Both the African National Congress (ANC) and the Indian National Congress (INC) were umbrella organizations working on national level.
Dissimilarities : The purpose of both the parties was different. ANC was fighting against apartheid and the segregation policies of the racial African Government. Whereas the INC was fighting against the British rule in India.
5. Method of Struggle:
Similarities : Both the South African struggle and Indian National Movement followed the same policy, i.e., the policy of non-violence.
Dissimilarities : In South Africa, there was only one group, that of the moderates, who adopted peaceful means against the government, whereas in India besides the moderates, there were also the extremists, who used violent methods to attain their goal of freedom.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically controlled enterprise".
1) Cooperatives may include: Non-profit community organizations/businesses owned and managed by the people who use their services (a consumer cooperative) or organizations managed by the people who work there (worker cooperatives) or organizations managed by the people to whom they provide accommodation (housing cooperatives) hybrids such as worker cooperatives that are also consumer cooperatives or credit unions multi-stakeholder cooperatives such as those that bring together civil society and local actors to deliver community needs second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperatives.
Research published by the World watch Institute found that in 2012 approximately one billion people in 96 countries had become members of at least one cooperative.
2) The turnover of the largest three hundred cooperatives in the world reached $2.2 trillion – which, if they were to be a country, it would make them the seventh largest.
There should be a Constituent Assembly to discuss and frame a Constitution if the basics had already been decided. The basics were related to right to freedom, universal adult franchise, rights of minorities which are the basis of any democratic society These basics were the guiding principles which were further developed and expanded to establish a welfare state.
In a democracy, it is the Constituent Assembly which makes the Constitutions with the help of the basics. So, the Constituent Assembly in India was established, even if all the basics were already decided.
I spoke to my grandfather who is 89 years old. He told me that at the time of Partition of India, they feared the British people and other influences that occupied the country though our own leaders were fighting bravely for our rights and free the country from the British rule.
The struggle of freedom was to rejuvenate our country and to transform our society. The constitution was being drafted. There was a general consensus on issues like inclusion of universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of minorities in the constitution of independent India.
There were fears and anxieties too. The constitution was to be drafted for a huge and diverse country. It was not going to be easy for a country already traumatised by division on religious differences. There was also the challenge of the merger of these princely states, which were independent to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.
Born to a priest’s family in Pudur village (in SPSR Nellore district, AP), Sri Iyer pursued history as a major from Madras Christian College, and studied law in his free time. Despite his chronic ill-health, he contributed to the following topics in drafting of the Constitution of India citizenship, fundamental rights, directive principles, judiciary in the Union and the States, distribution of legislative powers, articles dealing with the powers of the President and the Governor, and adult suffrage. He was vocal supporter of strong Centre, and said the following during the Constituent Assembly debates.
He also cautioned that the legislative, and executive should not leave the judiciary to do their job.
A Statesman Among Jurists, A biography of Sir Alladi Krishnaswami Aiyar was authored by his son, Alladi Kuppuswami, former Chief Justice of the High Court of Andhra Pradesh, and published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (1993).
A. Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (1875-1950), Jaipal Singh (1903-70), Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956), Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (1901-53).
B. Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel - Leader of Peasants Satyagrgha. Abul Kalam Azad - Theologian, Scholar of Arabic. Jaipal Singh - President of Adivasi Mahasabha. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar - Social revolutionary thinker and agitator against caste divisions and caste-based inequalities., Shyama Prasad Mukherjee - Active in the Hindu Mahasabha.
C. Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963), HC Mukherjee (1887-1956). Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949), Somnath Lahiri (1901-1984), Baldev Singh (1901-1961).
(i) The one idea that is common to all these three quotations is the ending of inequality in Indian society.
(ii) In the first quotation, Gandhiji strived for an India in which there should be no higher or lower class of people and all communities should live in perfect harmony.
In the second quotation, BR Ambedkar said, "We are going to enter a life of contradictions. In politics, we will have equality but in social and economic life, we will have inequality."
In the third quotation, Jawaharlal Nehru said about the ending of poverty, inequality, "the service of India means the ending of poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity."
(a) Each of these Preambles starts with, “We, the people." It means the sources of all authority to govern these countries are the people of these countries.
(b) In all these three, the idea of justice is embodied.
ii) In the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States, there is a statement for the formation of union, which is not there in the Preambles to the Indian and South African Constitutions.
iii) The Preamble to the Constitution of South Africa makes a reference to the past.
iv) The Preamble to the Constitutions of the United States and India do not invoke God. Both the Preamble suggests that citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. There is no official religion.
This is a true statement.
Members of the Constituent Assembly of India had different opinions on various provisions of the constitution .
This cannot be said with surety in the context of information given in this chapter.
Constitution can be amended to keep up with the changes in aspirations of the society.
(d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority.
(b) Name of the head of the state
|Coloum I||Column II|
|(a) Motilal Nehru||1. President of the Constituent Assembly|
|(b) B R Ambedkar||2. Member of the Constituent Assembly|
|(c) Rajendra Prasad||3. Chairman of the Drafting Committe|
|(d) Sarojini Naidu||4. Prepared a constitution for India in 1928|
(a) - 4, (b) - 3, (c) - 1, (d) - 2
The task of building a nation is a gargantuan task which cannot be fulfilled in one’s lifetime. Hence Nehru had used the expression, “not wholly or in full measure, but substantially”.
He wanted them to take the pledge of building a nation in which there would not be a single person with tears in his eyes. He wanted them to understand the huge responsibility which destiny had thrust upon them.
He was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.
|Coloum I||Column II|
|(a) Sovereign||1. Government will not favour any religion|
|(b) Republic||2. People have the supreme right to make decisions|
|(c) Fraternity||3. Head of the state is an elected person|
|(d) Secular||4. People should live like brothers and sisters|
(a) - 2, (b) - 3, (c) - 4, (d) - 1
The importance of this fact cannot be ignored. We should acknowledge that we learnt many good things from the British rulers and democracy was one of them.
Freedom struggle was important in spreading the idea of nationalism in India and inculcating the practice of making decisions by consensus.
We were indeed lucky that we did not have leaders who were autocratic. India’s freedom struggle is the only example of a bloodless freedom struggle in the contemporary history. This could be possible because our nationalist leaders had the maturity to listen to others’ views.
The constitution treats every citizen equally irrespective of gender distinction. Hence this paragraph does not reflect the underlying value in our constitution.
(a) This is not a true statement since the authority of the rules of the Constitution is much more than that of any other law.
(b) No, it is not correct because our Constitution lays down how different organs of the Government will be formed.
(c) This is a correct statement since in our Constitution rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government have been clearly laid down.
(d) A constitution is about institutions through which different values are being inculcated.