3.
When we conduct a one-tailed test instead of a two-tailed test, there are small changes in
steps 2 and 4 of hypothesis testing. (
Note:
For this example, assume that those from
populations other than the one on which it was normed will score lower, on average. That
is, hypothesize that the Canadians will have a lower mean.) Conduct steps 2, 4, and 6 of
hypothesis testing for a one-tailed test.

4.
Under which circumstance—a one-tailed or a two-tailed test—is it easier to reject the null
hypothesis? Explain.

5.
If it becomes easier to reject the null hypothesis under one type of test (one-tailed versus
two-tailed), does this mean that there is a bigger difference between the groups with a
one-tailed test than with a two-tailed test? Explain.

6.
When we change the
p
level that we use as a cutoff, there is a small change in step 4 of
hypothesis testing. Although 0.05 is the most commonly used
p
level, other values, such

7.
With which
p
level—0.05 or 0.01—is it easiest to reject the null hypothesis? Explain.

8.
If it is easier to reject the null hypothesis with certain
p
levels, does this mean that there is
a bigger difference between the samples with one
p
level versus the other
p
level?
Explain.