Geography - Class 8

Resources and Development

Chapter 4: Agriculture

Question 1:Answer the following questions.

(i) What is agriculture?

Answer: Agriculture includes growing crops ,fruits, vegetables, flowers ,and rearing of livestock. It is a primary activity.

(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?

Answer: The factors influencing agriculture are :

  • Availability of water
  • Topography of soil
  • Climatic conditions

(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

Answer:In shifting cultivation, the plot of land is first cleared by burning the trees. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.

Shifting cultivation is also known as 'slash and burn' agriculture.

Disadvantages are:

  • The land loses its fertility after use.
  • Soil erosion.
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(iv) What is plantation agriculture?

Answer: Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming with single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown.

(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Answer:Jute and cotton are the fibre crops.

Jute: jute is also known as the golden fibre. It grows on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate.This crop is grown in the tropical areas.

Cotton: cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth it grows best on black and alluvial soil.

Question 2:Tick the correct answer.

(i) Horticulture means

(a) growing of fruits and vegetables

(b) primitive farming

(c) growing of wheat

(ii) Golden fibre refers to

(a) tea

(b) cotton

(c) jute

(iii) Leading producers of coffee

(a) Brazil

(b) India

(c) Russia

Answers :-

(i) (a) growing of fruits and vegetables

(ii) (c) jute

(iii) (a) Brazil

Question 3:Give reasons.

(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.

Answers :Primary activities are those activities which includes extraction and production of natural resources.

Agriculture is a primary activity because it includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.

(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.

Answers :Different crops are grown in different regions because cultivation of crops depends upon the geographical conditions, climatic condition, topography of soil, demand of production, labor and level of technology.

Question 4:Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities

Answer :

Primary activities : Those activities which include the extraction and production of natural resources are called primary activities. Examples are agriculture, fishing.

Tertiary activities : Those activities which include the manufacturing of primary and secondary products are called tertiary activities. Examples are transport services, banking services

(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.

Answer :

Subsistence farming : This type of farming is practiced to meet the needs of the farmers family. Low level off technology and household labor are used to produce a small output.

Intensive farming : The farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labor.

Major crops include rice, wheat, maize, pulses etc.

Question 5:(i) Collect seeds of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, oilseeds and pulses available in the market. Bring them to the class and find out in which type of soil they grow.

Answer :
  • Soils with a clay loam or loam texture, good structure and moderate water holding capacity are ideal for wheat cultivation.
  • Soils with good water retention capacity with high amount of clay and organic matter are ideal for rice cultivation.
  • Jowar grows well in sandy loam soils having good drainage.
  • Bajra grows best in black cotton soil, sandy loam soil having well drainage.
  • Ragi is cultivated on a variety of soils ranging from rich loam to poor shallow upland soils. It prefers porous and well drained loam to light red loam and sandy loam soils of good fertility but reasonable water holding capacity.
  • Maize grows in soils with good organic matter content having high water holding capacity with neutral pH are considered good for higher productivity.

Oilseeds and pulses are grown in loamy soil.

Question 5:(ii)Find out the difference between the life style of farmers in the USA and India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers and the internet.

Answer :

  1. In india, 80% of the populaion is involved in farming. In USA, only a small number of people are involved in farming.
  2. the size of an average farm is small in size, around 2.3 hectares. In contrast, U.S. farm holdings are large, around 250 hectares.
  3. Indian farming is very much labor intensive, and most farmers use traditional methods of farming like plowing with bullocks. U.S. farming is mostly capital intensive with large-scale use of heavy and advanced machinery.
  4. Indian farming is still very much dependent on the weather and, consequently, is able to grow only two to three crops in a year. On the other hand, U.S. farms are able to grow multiple crops in one year.

5. For Fun

Question :Solve the crossword puzzle with the help of given clues.



1. Crop that needs well drained fertile soils, moderate temperatures and lots of sunshine (5)

2. Increasing production through use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides (5,10)

4. USA, Canada, Russia, Australia are major producers of this crop (5)

10. Type of farming to meet family needs (11)

13. Rearing of animals for sale (9)

14. Growing grapes for wines (11


1. Coarse grains are also called (7)

3. Cultivation involving slash and burn (8)

5. Growing of crops, fruits and vegetables (11)

6. Tea, coffee, sugarcane and rubber are grown in (11)

7. Requires 210 frost-free days for growth (6)

8. Growing of flowers (12)

9. Also called ‘Golden Fibre’ (4)

11. Also known as paddy (4)

12. Activity concerned with extraction of natural resources (7)

Answers :

  1. Across- Maize . Down- millets
  2. Green revolution
  3. Shifting
  4. Wheat
  5. Agriculture
  6. Plantations
  7. Cotton
  8. Horticulture
  9. Jute
  10. Subsistence
  11. Rice
  12. Primary
  13. Livestock
  14. Viticulture