Answer : We need a law on minimum wages so that private companies cannot deny workers their wages. It is also necessary to ensure that workers are not underpaid, or are paid fairly.
(a) What is the minimum wage for a construction worker in your state?
The minimum wage for a construction worker is Rs. 180/- per day.
(b) Do you think the minimum wage for a construction worker is adequate, low, or high?
The minimum wage for a construction worker is adequate if he gets the work regularly
(c) Who sets the minimum wages?
The contractor in case of a construction worker.
Enforcement of safety laws is important in any factory because of the following reasons :
(1) It is the duty of the government to ensure that the right to life guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution is not violated.
(2) More industries are being set up by local and foreign people or institutions in India. They hardly care to include safety measures to save costs and earn higher profits.
Workers are forced to work in unsafe conditions. If any accident occurs, it swallows thousands of lives for which their families are never compensated.
Few situations where laws exist but people do not follow them are :
Problems in enforcement :
Some ways in which enforcement can be improved :
Answer :Public facilities are some of the essential facilities that need to be provided for everyone. It includes healthcare and sanitation.
When everyone especially the poor in the rural and urban areas will have access to sanitation (toilet facilities within the premises of residence) the environment will become clean.
Apart from sanitation, healthcare is also important for a clean environment.
People can also contribute to keeping the environment clean by rational use of private vehicles.
Factory wastes should not be dumped into the lakes of rivers.
By summing up all these factors together the environment can be kept clean and people can lead a healthy life.
Answer : We need new laws to check pollution, clean rivers. The government should introduce heavy fines for those who pollute the environment. Polluter needs to be held accountable for the damage done to the environment.
Answer : Companies and contractors are able to violate environmental laws because :
No, everyone did not get justice in the case cited above. It is always the poor who suffer. In the above case, factory workers and slum dwellers were the victims.
Answer : Other ways in which the environment can be protected are as follows :
Construction workers : They do not receive the minimum wages.
Farm workers : They do not receive the minimum wages.
Factory workersb : They receive minimum wages.
Workers at the shop : They get minimum wages.
Answer : Advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India are:
Cheap labour: - Wages that the companies pay to workers say in the U.S.A. are far higher than what they have to pay workers in India.
For lower pay: - Companies can get longer hours of work. Additional expenses such as housing facilities for workers are also fewer.
Thus, companies can save costs and earn higher profits. Cost cutting can also be done by other more dangerous means. Lower working conditions including lower safety measures are used as ways of cutting costs.
Answer : No, the victims of Bhopal gas tragedy are still fighting for justice.
At first, the company which owned the pesticide factory- Union Carbide (UC) refused to accept responsibility despite the wide-open, so many evidences of the tragedy. The UC got away after paying a bare minimum compensation to the survivors of this tragedy. Even after 24 years the survivors are still fighting for justice, for safe drinking water, for health-care facilities and jobs for the poisoned by UC. Their cases are still pending in numerous courts.
Answer : Law enforcement implies the government's responsibility as lawmaker and enforcer, to ensure obedience to its laws by everyone within the State that it governs. It is the responsibility of the government to ascertain that laws are not violated by anyone. Enforcement is important to maintain the democratic status of India; if foreign companies are allowed to maintain low working conditions, then this interferes with the Fundamental Right of the Right to Life, of a worker. Hence, enforcement is necessary to protect the people.
Answer : Laws can ensure that markets work in a fair manner. The frequently upgraded Minimum wages ensures that workers are not exploited and over-worked by companies that hire them. Also, a law keeping checks on the quality of production makes sure that sub-standard goods do not enter the market.
Timings of getting up from bed changed. Earlier it was 7.00 a.m. now 5.00 a.m. I should have to start from my house at 6.30 a.m.
Earlier I used to go to the factory by bus. Now first I catch the train from the railway station. Then take a bus to reach the factory.
Earlier I was able to teach my children in the evening and go to the market to buy vegetables. Now I do not have time.
The timing of reaching home has changed. Earlier it was 7.00. p.m. now it is 9.30 to 10.00 p.m.
Answer : The government plays a large number of roles in any state. In Unit five, the government's role in the economic sector is explained. This includes providing public facilities like water supply, healthcare and sanitation and ensuring that these amenities are not overtaken by private enterprises; the government also plays a pivotal role in law enforcement, which is of utmost importance in the economic sector.
The government makes laws to protect workers in production factories- laws on minimum wages, controlling working conditions and safety measures. It also makes laws for markets that protect consumers against over-pricing and substandard products. The government has a law against child labour and it also punishes organizations that do not follow policies put in place to protect the environment against pollution.
Answer : There are many sources of environmental pollution in our area.
Air Pollution: By vehicles, industrial gases disposed through chimneys, smokes from red brick Bhattas.
Water Pollution: Various chemical discharges and other liquid effluents from some industries like tanneries, aluminium etc. Because of dry latrines and inefficient discharge of house wastes and sewerage into the river.
Soil Pollution: Due to the throwing of plastic bags here and there, lack of proper arrangement of disposing household wastes, industrial effluents and ashes etc.
In the recent years there has been a consistent increase in awareness of the need for a clean environment. The courts in our country have come out with a number of strong orders on the environmental issues and accordingly steps are also being taken to reduce pollutions.
But still many more things have to be done in this direction:
Answer : Earlier the environment was treated as a 'free' entity and any industry or even an individual could pollute the air and water without any restrictions. Whether it was our rivers, air, and groundwater - the environment was being polluted since there were no laws in this regard.
In the recent years and particularly the Bhopal gas tragedy has brought the issue of environment to the forefront. Now the perception has completely changed and the people have understood that the environment is something which the people over generations will share.
There has been an increasing awareness among all that a clean environment is a public facility that cannot be destroyed merely for industrial development. The courts also gave a number of judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to life.
The famous cartoonist R.K. Laxman is trying to convey, that child labour is still, prevalent in India. It is poor who suffer ‘from this social evil. Poor people are dominated by wealthy people. In the cartoon, the female has sympathy for her child but equally cruel for another poor child. She did not hesitate to put, heavy bag of oil on the poor child’s back.
According to the law passed in 2016 (the Child Labour Prevention Act) the children under 14 years of age (were banned froth working as domestic servants or as workers in dhabas, restaurants, tea shops, etc. It has made employing these children a punishable offence. But the irony is that in spite of passing this law it is violated without fear and people are not punished for such crimes.