History - Class 7

Our Past - II

Chapter 9: The Making Of Regional Cultures

Intext Questions:

Question 1: Find out how many states have been created in the last 10 years. Is each of these states a region?

Answer: Three: (in 2000)

  • Uttaranchal (Now Uttarakhand)
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Jharkhand
  • Telangana (2014)

Yes, each of these states is a region.

Question 2: Find out when the language(s) you speak at home was first used for writing.

Answer: Telugu is the language spoken in our house. Probably, writing of this language started in ninth century.

Question: Did women find a place within these stories?

Answer: Yes, women do find a place within these stories.

Do you need help with your Homework? Are you preparing for Exams?
Study without Internet (Offline)

Question 3: Find out whether there are traditions of heroes /heroines in your town or village. What are the qualities associated with them? In what ways are these similar to or different from the heroic ideals of the Rajputs?

Answer: One example:

  • Yes. Banda Veer Bairagi.
  • Brave and fearless.
  • Never surrendered to Mughals. He was killed (cut in pieces) by the Mughal emperor.

Question 4: Find out more about any one of these dance forms.

Answer: Kathakali is the dance form in which the dancer shows various poses along with singing a religious theme.It is a "story play" genre of art, but one distinguished by the elaborately colourful make-up, costumes and face masks that the traditionally male actor-dancers wear.

Question 5: Why do you think the second category of texts was not written down?

Answer: Because they were recited orally. Their date cannot be confirmed. They were popular in eastern Bengal.

Question 6: Compare the temple shown here with that in Chapter 2.

Answer: The temple shown here has a big Shikhara over a big dome while the temple shown in Chapter 2 is in a triangular shape with numerous statues of gods and goddesses shown on the outer walls.


Question: You are a Rajput prince. How would you like your story to be told?


  • Warrior
  • Fighter
  • Valiant
  • True to their clan


1. Match the following:

1)Anantavarman a)Kerala
2)Jagannatha b)Bengal
3)Mahodayapuram c)Orissa
4)Lilatilakam d)Kangra
5)Mangalakavya e)Puri
Miniature Kerala


1)Anantavarman a)Orissa
2)Jagannatha b)Puri
3)Mahodayapuram c) Kerala
4)Lilatilakam d)Kerala
5)Mangalakavya e)Bengal
Miniature Kangra

Question 2: What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in that language.

Answer: Manipravalam which literally means “diamonds and corals”, refers to the two languages — Sanskrit and the regional language of Kerala. A book dealing with grammar and poetics – Lilatilakam. was written in Manipravalam.

Question 3: Who were the major patrons of Kathak?

Answer: The major patrons of Kathak were the Mughal emperors, their nobles, the courts of Rajasthan and Lucknow and the last Nawab of Awadh - Wajid Ali Shah.

Question 4: What are the important architectural features of the temples of Bengal?

Answer: The main architectural features of the temples of Bengal are as under:

  1. The brick and terracotta temples of Bengal were built with the support of several “low” social groups.
  2. Initially, local deities were worshipped in thatched huts in villages.
  3. But, as soon as Brahmanas gave recognition to these local deities, temples were built for them.
  4. Temples copied the double-roofed or four-roofed structure of the thatched huts.
  5. This led to the evolution of the typical Bengali style in temple architecture. For example, “Bangla Dome”.
  6. In the complex of four-roofed structures, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to converge on a curved line and a point.
  7. Temples were usually built on a square platform.
  8. The interior was relatively plain, but the outer walls of many temples were decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tablets.


Question 5: Why did minstrels proclaim the achievements of heroes?


  1. Minstrels preserved the memories of the heroes.
  2. Their poems and songs inspired others to follow the examples of the heroes.
  3. Ordinary people were also attracted by these stories, songs and poems.
  4. These stories have great emotions, loyalties, friendship, love, valour, anger etc.

Question 6: Why do we know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people?

Answer: Rulers adopted many methods to preserve their achievements, such as minstrels singing their heroic stories, paintings inscriptions, historical worth, a donation to temples, etc., while Ordinary men and women also painted on pots, walls, floors, cloth. But their work of art did not survive for long.Therefore, we know more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people.

Question 7: Why did conquerors try to control the temple of Jagannatha at Puri?

Answer: The conquerors tried to control the temple of Jagannatha at Puri because of the following reasons:
As the temple of Jagannatha at Puri gained importance as a centre of pilgrimage, its authority in social and political matters also increased. Hence, conquerors like the Mughals, the Marathas and the English East India Company tried to establish control over the temple. They felt that this would make their rule acceptable to the local people.

Question 8: Why were temples built in Bengal?

Answer: Temples were built in Bengal by some individuals or groups to house the local deities and, also to demonstrate their power and richness.
Many of the small brick and terracotta temples in Bengal were built with the help of several “low” social groups like the Kolu (oil pressers) and the Kansari (bell metal workers). When local deities, once worshipped in thatched huts in villages, gained the recognition of the Brahmanas, their images began to be housed in temples.
As the European trading companies introduced many new economic opportunities in Bengal, it improved the social and economic status of many families. So, they proclaimed their status through the construction of temples.


Question 9: Describe the most important features of the culture of your region, focusing on buildings, performing arts, and painting.

Answer: Most Important features of our culture and our region:

  1. Hindu culture
  2. Worship of gods and goddesses.
  3. Celebrations of numerous festivals the year-round.
  4. Huge temples.
  5. Bhajans and Kirtans.
  6. Paintings of gods and goddesses.

Question 10: Do you use different languages for (a) speaking, (b) reading, (c) writing? Find out about one major composition in language that you use and discuss why you find it interesting.


(a)For speaking I use English and Telugu.

(b) For reading I use Hindi, Telugu and English

(c) For writing I use Hindi, Telugu and English. Thus, I use different languages for speaking, reading and writing. I really find it interesting because I’m using mother tongue for speaking and while Reading. I’m learning English and I’m practising both my mother tongue and English in writing.

Question 11: Choose one state each from north, west, south, east and central India. For each of these, prepare a list of foods that are commonly consumed, highlighting any differences and similarities that you notice.


States Foods Similarities/Differences
North: Haryana Dal, Chapatis (of wheat) Vegetarian
West: Gujarat Khakra, Dhokla Vegetarian
South: Kerala Rice, Sambhar and Fish Vegetarian + Non-vegetarian
East: West Bengal Rice and Fish Vegetarian + Non-vegetarian
Central: Madhya Pradesh Dal, Chapatis (of wheat) Vegetarian

Question 12: Choose another set of five states from each of these regions and prepare a list of clothes that are generally worn by women and men in each. Discuss your findings.


States Clothes (Men) (Women)
North: Punjab Lungi, Kurta and Head gear Salwar and Kameez
West: Rajasthan Dhoti, Kurta and Pagdi Lahanga, Saree ,Blouse
East: Orissa Dhoti, Kurta Saree and Blouse
South: Tamil Nadu Kameez and Lungi Saree and Blouse
Central: Chhattisgarh Kameez, Dhoti/pant and Trousers Saree and Blouse