Answer: Yes, As this painting portraits the hierarchy of the Mughal emperors right from Timur to Aurangzeb.
Answer: No, the uncertain situation still persisted and he had to personally manage the affairs of Deccan. He even had to face guerrilla warfare.
Answer: Both these traditions have their own positives and negatives.
Primogeniture: It can make the eldest son inherited his father’s estate. Since all brothers have to listen to their eldest brother might make the empire so powerful as the unity is strength. But at the same time, it might anger the younger brothers and might lead to disintegration of the kingdom.
Coparcenary: According to this, Empire is divided equally amongst all sons of a king. It can bring peace in the kingdom since there are no wars of inheritance. But it weakens the kingdom by dividing a big one into pieces so can provoke enemies to attack and can lead to spoil the rich diversity of a big kingdom.
Answer: Aurangzeb insulted Shivaji then he escaped from Agra, declared himself an independent king and resumed his campaigns against the Mughals.
Answer: Yes, this led to more expenditure on the Exchequer. By Aurangzeb’s reign the actual revenue collected was often less than the granted sum. There was a huge increase in the number of mansabdars, which meant a long wait before they received a jagir. These and other factors created a shortage in the number of jagirs. As a result, many jagirdars tried to extract as much revenue as possible while they had a jagir.
Answer: The Jesuit priests in this picture are in black and long gowns.
Answer: We would make our kingdom stable and prosperous in the following manner:
Answer: The central provinces under the control of the Mughals were Delhi, Sindh, Kabul, Mewar, Marwar, Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa and Deccan.
Answer: Role of the Zamindar in Mughal administration:
Answer: Debates with religious scholars helped Akbar in framing the idea of sulh-ikul that means universal peace. Akbar was interested in the religion and social customs of different people. Akbar’s interaction with people of different faiths made him realise that religious scholars who emphasised ritual and dogma were often bigots. Their teachings created divisions and disharmony amongst his subjects. This led Akbar to the idea of sulh-ikul. This idea of tolerance did not discriminate between people of different religions in his realm. By using such a policy of tolerance Akbar was able to formulate governance guidelines which werebased on a system of ethics – honesty, justice and peace
Answer: From their mother’s side, the Mughals were descendants of Genghis Khan, the ruler of Mongol. From their father’s side, they were the successors of Timur the ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey. However, the Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol because Genghis Khan’s memory was associated with the massacre of a large number of people. But the Mughals were proud of their Timurid ancestry because their great ancestor, Timur had captured Delhi in 1398.
Answer: Land revenue was the backbone of the Mughal Empire. Without it nothing could be done. The king could not pay the salary of his soldiers. Neither could he do any welfare work. The administrative expenditure was so vast and this could be met with this revenue only. Hence, revenue was important to strengthen the empire.
Answer: It was important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis because of the following reasons:
Answer: No. This does not pose any challenge to national integration. Unity in diversity is the special feature of India. Indians may belong to different regions, cultures, castes and creed. But this does not mean that they are different people. They are one and are proud of being born in India.
Sometimes social conflicts arise no doubt but they are solved in an amicable way. Whenever there is an external threat, all Indians come together. The Kargil war is worth mentioning here. India fought and won the war in the last. That was the time when everyone was filled with patriotic feelings. There was only one goal, Le. to win the war and that India did with the help of her brave heroes.
Answer: Peasants are still very important as they are the producers of food and the agrarian industrial raw material:
Answer: I live in Delhi. It was the capital of the Mughal Empire. The Empire changed the face of the city. We see the Red Fort, Chandni Chowk, Jama Masjid, Humayun’s tomb, the Mughal garden, etc. in the city. These were the contributions of the Mughal emperors who made the city so rich and colourful.