Answer: People presented at these rituals were-
Answer: Many people did not accept the system of varna laid down by the brahmins. Some kings thought they were superior to the priests. Others felt that birth could not be a basis for deciding which varna people belonged to. Besides, some people felt that there should be no differences amongst people based on occupation. Others felt that everybody should be able to perform rituals. And others condemned the practice of untouchability. Also, there were many areas in the subcontinent, such as the north-east, where social and economic differences were not very sharp, and where the influence of the priests was limited.
Answer: Sugarcane is the only crop that was not mentioned in chapter 3
Answer: The difference between the rajas of mahajanapadas and rigvedic rajas were-
Answer: Hunters and gatherers had to provide hunted animals meat, forest produce like honey, nuts like to the raja.
Answer: There were two major changes in agriculture around this time. One was the growing use of iron ploughshares. This meant that heavy, clayey soil could be turned over better than with a wooden ploughshare, so that more grain could be produced. Second, people began transplanting paddy. This meant that instead of scattering seed on the ground, from which plants would sprout, saplings were grown and then planted in the fields. This led to increased production, as many more plants survived.
Answer: In the Rigveda times there was no regular army. Most of the man took part in the war, whenever required. In the later period, the king had vast armies of foot soldiers, chariots and elephants.
Answer: The difference between the Vajji sangha and mahajanapadas were:
Answer: It was not a true democracy because women were not considered as citizens. Many foreigners, merchants and crafts persons did not have rights as citizens.
Answer: I might have heard the discussions of jana or assembly in Vaishali which is holding a meeting to discuss how to deal with an attack by the king of Magadha.
Answer: The groups who cannot participate in the assemblies of the ganas were:
Women, Shudras, Kammakaras, etc.,.
Answer: The Rajas of mahajanapadas built forts around their capital cities because probably the people were afraid of attacks from other kings and needed protection.
It is also possible that some rajas wanted to show that they were rich and powerful by building large, tall and impressive walls around cities. The Rajas of mahajanapadas built forts for:
Answer: Choosing rulers in janapadas- men were chosen rajas by performing big sacrifices. The ashvamedha was one such ritual whch was used to identify a raja.
The raja chosen by this sacrifice was considered very powerful. Electing rulers today- Today, we have a democratic system of government. Each citizen has a right to vote and the government is decided by elections in which each citizen has to vote.
Answer: Asmaka was the only janapadha in Andhrapradesh. It is in the south india
Answer: Traders, craftsperson pay taxes to the government today.
Answer: Women, Shudras, Kammakaras have voting rights now.