Answer:It is a busy street scene in a city, with hawkers and vendors. Various types of vehicles like buses, cycles, and rickshaws are playing on the roads. The people are busy buying goods and some people are trying to board the bus.
Answer:The people in the rural areas mostly work in the fields or they go to catch fish, which is sold by the womenfolk. In the cities, there are hawkers and vendors, rickshaw pullers and vegetable sellers, etc.
Answer: Some parts of the city have high-rise buildings and some the construction of high-rise buildings is in progress.
In some parts public transport is used whereas in others private vehicles are preferred.
Pavements in some parts are occupied by vendors and some with pavement shops.
Some children use school buswhereas some use public transport to go to school.People are either self-employed like small or big businesses or are salaried in private or government jobs.
Answer:Bachchu Manjhi came to the city to find work. He did not get masonry work regularly. The income that he earned was not sufficient for his family.
Answer:Bachchu Manjhi cannot live with his family because he lives in a rented room with his friends.
A vegetable vendor :
A hawker is a person who arranges his wares on a trolley and goes from place to place to sell them. He also gives a loud call, from time to time, to attract the attention of the people.
Answer:Bachchu Manjhi is a rickshaw puller and earns about Rs. 100/- a day. If he takes leave he will not be able to earn money for himself and his family.
Answer:Harpreet and Vandana opened a showroom, the business had changed. The people prefer to buy readymade clothes, rather than have them stitched. The trend is for readymade garments. Vandana is a dress designer. Harpreet knew how to manage the shop.
Answer:The shopkeeper purchases goods from different places and tries to have a variety and latest goods introduced in the market. He displays and advertises his goods. He is polite to the customers. He also hears the genuine complaints of the customer and sometimes replaces the articles. There is stiff competition in the market, shopkeepers give discounts and organize sales.
Answer:The difference between those who sell on the street and those in the market are:
On the street:
Answer:The small workshops and factories employ causal workers because these workshops get orders from abroad or some other dealer. When there is more work, they employ more workers. When there is no work they dismiss the casual workers.
working hours, conditions in the workplace, earnings, and days of work available.
Answer:The working conditions of people like Nirmala are:
Working hours: They have long working hours, 12 hours a day. They start working at 9 am and finish only by 10 pm, sometimes even later. She works for 6 days a week. At times, when there is more work, or there is an urgent need, she works on Sundays also.
Conditions in the workplace: The working place is a small workshop, people working in a small room on sewing machines, where the cloth was being stitched. Clothes that had been stitched were stacked on one side of the room.
Earnings: The workers are paid Rs. 80 a day for eight hours and Rs. 40 extra for working late. There is no job security.
Days of work available: The casual workers like Nirmala are employed when there is more work, depending upon the season or when orders are received. For some months, there is no work, in a year.
Answer:Domestic workers like housemaids are not casual workers. They get monthly payments, food, and a house to live in. They may also be given some medical help when needed. They work throughout the year. The work-day for the housemaids starts early in the morning. They perform all household chores like cleaning the house, washing clothes, cooking food, and cleaning the utensils. She may get some rest hours in the afternoon. The working hour ends at about 10 pm.
Most workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accommodation and so sleep on pavements near the chowk, or they pay Rs 6 a night for a bed at a nearby night shelter run by the Municipal Corporation. To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function as banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers leave their tools at these shops for the night for safekeeping, and pass on any extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money safely and also offer loans to labourers in need.
Answer:Living condition of workers who came to the labour chowk:
|Name||Place of work||Earnings||Security of work||Benefits||Work on their own or employed|
|Bachchu , Manjhi||Road as a cycle rickshaw puller||Rs 100 a day||No security||No benefits||Work on his own|
|Harpreet Vandana||Showroom||Flexible||Their job is secured||They are planning to buy a flat and car.||Work on their own|
|Nirmala||Garment factory||Rs. 80 a day||No security||She can earn extra money by working late.||Employed|
|Sudha||Biscuit Manufacturing Company||She gets regular salary.||Her job is secured||Holidays, medical facilities||Employed|
Answer:Bachchu Manjhi is a rickshaw puller, his income is low and he has to save for his family, who lives in the village. He carries people in his rickshaw.
Harpreet and Vandana have their own showroom; they buy goods from different places and advertise their goods over the T.V.
Nirmala is a tailor, works for long hours, gets extra payment. The factory reduces its work by the month of June and she will be asked to leave.
Sudha is a marketing manager, looks after the sales and marketing of biscuits. She tries to increase the sale. She gets holidays, medical benefits up to a certain limit, a part of her salary is kept with the government and on it she gets interested. When she retires she will get this money back
|Permanent Job||Regular Job|
|Job Security||No Job Security|
|Fixed working hour||No Fixed working hour|
|Fixed payments||No Fixed payments|
|Paid holidays and leave||No Paid holidays and leave|
|Extra benefits||No Extra benefits|
Answer:Sudha get different benefits along with her salary:
|Name of the shop or office||Nature of the service provided|
|ABC Kirana Store||Provides rations and daily needs items|
|Safal Vegetable Store||Vegetables anf fruits shop|
|Zee Cable Operators||Dish and cable TV network supply|
|Amul Milk Shop||Home delivery of milk and dairy products|