Geography - Class 10

Contemporary India-II

Chapter 1: Resources and Development

Question 1: Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?

(a) Renewable

(b) Biotic

(c) Flow

(d) Non-renewable

(ii) Under which of the following type of resource tidal energy cannot be put?

(a) Replenishable

(b) Human-made

(c) Abiotic

(d) Non-recyclable

(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?

(a) Intensive cultivation

(b) Deforestation

(c) Over irrigation

(d) Overgrazing

(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practiced?

(a) Punjab

(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh

(c) Haryana

(d) Uttarakhand

(v) In which of the following states black soil is predominantly found?

(a) Jammu and Kashmir

(b) Maharashtra

(c) Rajasthan

(d) Jharkhand

Answer :

(i) (d) Non-renewable

(ii) (a) Replenishable

(iii) (c) Over irrigation

(iv) (d) Uttarakhand

(v) (b) Maharashtra

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Question 2: Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.

Answer :The three states having black soil are -

  • Maharashtra
  • Gujarat
  • Madhya Pradesh

The crop grown in black soil is cotton.

(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.

Answer :The type of soil found in river deltas of the eastern coast is Alluvial Soil.

Following are the three main features of Alluvial soil -

  1. Very fertile hence good for cultivation of crops
  2. Consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay
  3. It has a good quantity of potash, lime, phosphoric acid which is good for the growth of paddy and sugarcane

(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?

Answer :The main techniques that can be used to control soil erosion in the hilly areas are given below-

  1. Contour ploughing
  2. Terrace farming
  3. Strips of grass are allowed to grow between the crops, this method is known as strip cropping.

(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.

Answer :
Biotic resources Abiotic resources
These are obtained from biosphere. All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources.
Examples are human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock. Examples are rocks and metals.

Question 3: Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?

Answer :The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc. The pattern of the net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands. Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, as it was outlined in the National Forest Policy (1952). It was considered essential for the maintenance of the ecological balance. A part of the land is termed as wasteland and land put to other non-agricultural uses. Wasteland includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc. Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it has resulted in land degradation.

(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?

Answer :
  1. Large scale production-
  2. Large scale production leads to over utilization of resources as more and more raw sources are required.

  3. Technological advancement led to greater exploitation of resources.
  4. Technological development result into economic development. Therefore, needs of the people are increased equally, which led to more consumption of resources.
  5. In developed nations the needs of the people are very high.
  6. Improved medical and health resources led to huge consumption of resources.
  7. Introduction of more developed machineries.


Question 3: Imagine, if the oil supply gets exhausted one day, how would this affect our life style?

Answer :
  1. If oil supplies get exhausted, this will affect our life-style very much because in such a situation the machines, vehicles, railways etc. will not be able to run.
  2. People would not be able to go from one place to another because oil is needed for every means of transport.
  3. Most of our activities are depended on petroleum products like petrol, diesel, LPG, CNG etc.

Question 4: Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.


(i)Natural endowments in the form of land, water, vegetation and minerals.

(ii)A type of non-renewable resource.

(iii)Soil with high water retaining capacity.

(iv)Intensively leached soils of the monsoon climate.

(v)Plantation of trees on a large scale to check soil erosion.

(vi)The Great Plains of India are made up of these soils.

Answers :

(i) Resource

(ii) Minerals

(iii) Black

(iv) Laterite


(vi) Alluvial


Intext Questions:

Question :Can you identify and name the various items used in making life comfortable in our villages and towns. List the items and name the material used in their making.

Answer :


Clothes - Cotton, synthetic fibers, wool silk, etc

Furniture - Wood, steel, rubber, etc.

Houses - Bricks, cement, wood

Bicycles and motorcycle - Steel, rubber, etc.


Cooking gas stove and cylinder - Steel, brass, rubber, etc.

Cars and motorcycles - Steel, plastics, brass, etc.

Fans, room coolers and air conditioners - Steel, copper, plastics, etc.

Refrigerators and TV sets - Steel, copper, plastics, glass, etc.

Question :Identify at least two resources from each Category.

On the Basis of Origin:

Biotic Resources : human beings, animals

Abiotic Resources : Coal, steel

On the Basis of Exhaustibility:

Renewable Resources : water,air

Non-Renewable Resources : coal, petroleum

On the Basis of Ownership:

Individual Resources : Plantation, lands

Community Owned Resources : public parks, picnic spots

National Resources : forests, wildlife

International Resources : oceanic resources, sea routes

On the Basis of the Status of Development:

Potential Resources : of wind energy and solar energy

Developed Resources : water, forests

Stock : water, soil

Reserves : oil, gas

Question :Prepare a list of stock and reserve, resources that you are familiar with from your local area.

Answer :

Stock : water, Air, Soil, Gases, etc.

Reserves : Water dams, woods from forests, oil refineries, etc.

Question :Can you name some resource rich but economically backward regions and some resource poor but economically developed regions? Give reasons for such a situation.

Answer :States of Orissa, Assam, and Jharkhand are rich in resources but are economically backward.

States of Punjab, Delhi, and Haryana are poor in resources but are economically developed.

Question : Prepare a list of resources found in your state and also identify the resources that are important but deficit in your state.

Answer :The State of Madhya Pradesh is richly endowed with mineral wealth. It is the sole producer of diamond in the country. Coal, limestone, manganese ore, bauxite, copper ore, dolomite, fire clay, slate pyrophyllite-diaspore are the main minerals occurring in the State.

Question : Try to do a comparison between the two pie charts (Fig. 1.4) given for land use and find out why the net sown area and the land under forests have changed from 1960-61 to 2002-03 very marginally.


Answers :The net sown area and the land under forests have changed from 1960-61 to 2002-03 very marginally because of the following factors:

  • Urbanization
  • floods
  • increasing population,
  • fragmentation of land holdings
  • declining water table
  • unabated and massive conversion of agricultural land for building houses and construction of infrastructure.
  • Rise in cost of irrigation

Question :The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands. Find out reasons for the low proportion of net sown area in these states.

Answers :Net sown area in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Manipur is low mainly due to the hilly and rocky terrain. Andaman and Nicobar Islands are covered by dense tropical forests and so net sown area is low.