No, this is not politics. Every woman in India is expected to do so many household chores but few of them are allowed to do jobs. That's the point of gender inequality in society. Patriarchal and Orthodox mindset still exists in India where women are not getting equal rights on par with men.
Many theories reflect that politics begin from home. When male dominates females, this hierarchy is followed throughout the system. Patriarchy is what suppresses women in all fields of life
If politics ends at home or women get equal rights, women will get equal chances in all spheres of life.
It is not possible to agree with any one perception of women, shown through the figures. In today’s times, woman are balancing housework, work outside the house and their carriers equally.
In my view women should not be tied in the image of an ideal woman. They should have equal rights and opportunities, to be what they want to be and live a life of good health and happiness.
Survey report conducted in my household is:
Yes, Women work more than men in every household. But their household is least recognised, as it is not an income generating work.
What she does is also work but it is considered as work in our male dominated society because it is not connected with earning of money. Most of the time men work less than women but they work is valued because they work outside and earn money. Since money is not involved in the work of house-wives, it is said that they don't work. This mind-set is very old and needs to be changed. Women's work should be given as much value as work done by them.
My state is Andhra Pradesh. Its child sex ratio is between 945. Its range is shown in green colour.
Maharastra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Punjab and Jammu and kashmir.
Both the map and poster are concerned about the decreasing trend of child sex ratio
(i) The reasons for low level of women participation in politics are:
Feminism does not encourage division politics. It advocates women rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. It believes in equal rights and opportunities for men and women. Social divisions like communalism and castes usually divide the society and enhance inequality while feminism talks about equality. With stronger women comes stronger society.
Yes, the cartoon reflects that our legislature is male - dominated. Every gate to the parliament is well guarded by men who do not wish women to enter the house. But, they pretend to show that very soon they are going to pass a bill regarding women’s reservation in the house.
If you are not religious it means you don’t believe God. Communalism is a social phenomena based on the barbaric attitude of some religious communities. This attitudes and activities follows it harm the social system and the relations among the different religious communities.
So, you should also bother about communalism to make peace in the society.
Secularism means there is no state religion instead the state respects all religions equally. So, whether you are religious or not, you should also bother about the secularism so that there will not be any favour or discrimination against any religion. It will maintain a healthy atmosphere in the country.
Religion is a faith of a person or a group of people in a particular way of prayer to a specific supernatural power. This faith is very much based on personal and community grounds. So, you should not make jokes about the people of any religion. It may result communal tension in the society and you will be responsible.
Casteism is not promoted by talking about castes in this text book. India is a religious and caste based country with multiple languages in usage. It is known fact that there are people of different castes living together in India society. So reality cannot be hidden. This is the reason why there is a discussion on caste in this textbook. The ill effects of casteism can be explained to students in this age itself for a better India.
(i) Caste is dominating Indian society and thereby it has its say in politics as well. As said in the textbook whenever there is domination, it should be discussed in the political science. So caste is discussed in political science.
(ii) Caste will not disappear from the India politics and from society merely by keeping mum about it. Because it has become a part and parcel of our political and social system.
I think that political leaders are not right in treating people belonging to a caste as vote banks. The process of dividing vote bank based on caste will divide the society into different groups by dirty game of politicians and political parties during elections to win the election. This encourages social division in the society which leads to conflicts among the people. It disturbs social harmony.
Women on the basis of gender have always been discriminated in almost all the societies of the world including India. Ours is a patriarchal society. Women face disadvantage, discrimination, and oppression in various ways as mentioned below.
Women are deprived of equal access to education. Thus, the literacy rate among women is only 59.3 percent as compared to 78.8 percent among men.
A smaller proportion of girl students go for higher education because in spite of their better performance than boys, they drop out as parents prefer to spend their resources for their son’s education, they do not want to spend equally on their sons and daughters.
Discrimination in job opportunities and remuneration or salary :
Under Equal Wages Act, equal wages should be paid for equal work. In practice almost in every sphere, women are paid less than men, even when both do exactly the same work, On average an Indian woman works one hour more than an average man every day. Yet much of her work is not paid and therefore often not valued.
Preference for sons:
Even now in many parts of India, parents prefer to have sons, There are cases where a girl child is aborted before she is born. Due to sex-selective abortion, the sex-ratio has declined from 927 in 2001 to 850 or 800 in some places.
Harassment against women:
Women are being harassed by their employers at work place. They are sexually assaulted at homes. They are not safe during their journey at night. They are subjected to various forms of domestic violence such as beating and harassment.
Communalism involve religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. Different forms of communal politics are:
Caste is the dominant principle in contemporary India. Caste still persists in India even though it took new forms . Even now most people marry within their own caste or tribe. Untouchability has not ended completely, despite constitutional prohibition. The legacy of upper and lower castes is still felt today in the society.
Caste continues to be closely linked to economic status: The caste groups that had access to education under the old system have done very well in acquiring modern education as well. Those groups that did not have access to education or were prohibited from acquiring it have naturally lagged behind. That is why there is a disproportionately large presence of ‘upper caste’ among the urban middle classes in our country.
The caste alone cannot determine election results in India because of the following reasons:
In India, the percentage of elected women in legislature is merely 12 percent of its total strength where they constitute 50% of the population. Their share in the state assemblies is less than 5 percent. In this respect, India is among the bottom group of nations in the world. India is behind the averages for several developing countries of Africa like Rwanda, Somalia and Latin America where women percentage in legislature crossed 50 percent. In the government, cabinets are largely all-male even when a woman becomes the Chief Minister or the Prime Minister.
Two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state are given below :
(1) India is secular state as per preamble of the constitution. There is no official religion in India. Our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion like Islam in Pakistan, Buddhism in Sri Lanka and Christianity in England. State observes an attitude of neutrality and impartiality towards all religions.
(2) Under Article 25 of the Indian Constitution, it provides to all persons and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion or not to follow any.
Answer: (b) Unequal roles assigned by society to men and women.
Answer: (d) Panchayati Raj bodies
Answer: (c) A and C
Answer: (b) gives official status to one religion.
|1. A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men||A. Communalist|
|2. A person who says that religion is the principal basics of community||B. Feminist|
|3. A person who thinks that caste is the principal||C. Secularist|
|4. A person who does not discriminate other on the basis of religious beliefs||D. Castiest|
Answer: (b) B, A, D, C is the correct answer.