Geography - Class 10

Contemporary India-II

Chapter 2: Forest and Wildlife Resources

Question 1: Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?

(a) Agricultural expansion.

(b) Large scale developmental projects.M

(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection.

(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.

(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?

(a) Joint forest management

(b) Beej Bachao Andolan

(c) Chipko Movement

(d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries

Answer :

(i) (c) Grazing and fuel wood collection

(ii) (d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries

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Question 2: Match the following animals with their category of existence.

Animals/Plants Category of existence
Black Buck Extinct
Asiatic elephant Rare
Andaman Wild pig Endangered
Himalayan brown bear Vulnerable
Pink head duck Endemic
Answer :
Animals/Plants Category of existence
Black Buck Endangered
Asiatic elephant Valnerable
Andaman Wild pig Endemic
Himalayan brown bear Rare
Pink head duck Extinct

Question 3: Match the following.

Reserved forests other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities
Protected forests forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources
Unclassed forests forest lands are protected from any further depletion
Answer :
Reserved forests forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources
Protected forests forest lands are protected from any further depletion
Unclassed forests other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities

Question 4: Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?

Answer : Biodiversity refers to diverse flora and fauna that exist in a given area. Biodiversity is made up of various types of life forms found on earth. Contribution of biodiversity in human lives. Plants, animals and human beings are interdependent. It is necessary for human beings as we get fresh air, water, food, etc., from them. Thus, the existence of human beings depends on them.

(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.

Answer : Human activities and man's insensitivity to the environment have been the major causes for the depletion of flora and fauna. Following are the few activities leading to such causes-

  1. Deforestation for agricultural expansion
  2. Degradation of forests by shifting cultivation
  3. Large scale development projects
  4. Mining activities
  5. Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over exploitation of forest products, environmental degradation, forest fires.

Question 5: Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?

Answer : Chipko Movement-

The famous Chipko movement in the Himalayas has not only successfully resisted deforestation in several areas but has also shown that community afforestation with indigenous species can be enormously successful. Certain societies revere a particular tree which they have preserved from time immemorial. The Mundas and the Santhal of Chota Nagpur region worship mahua (Bassia latifolia) and kadamba (Anthocaphalus cadamba) trees, and the tribals of Odisha and Bihar worship the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and mango (Mangifera indica) trees during weddings. To many of us, peepal and banyan trees are considered sacred.

In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act. In many areas, villagers themselves are protecting habitats and explicitly rejecting government involvement. The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have declared 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav 'Sonchuri', declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting and are protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments.

(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.

Answer : For the conservation of forests many good practices have been evolved. These include:

  1. Worshiping of trees and animals.
  2. Use of flora and fauna in religious functions.
  3. Formation of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and bio reserves to protect endangered species.
  4. Punishable penal codes on killing animals.
  5. Community programs like Vanmahotsav etc. to bring awareness among the people about importance of wildlife.
  6. Regulated and Planned Cutting of Trees.
  7. Control over Forest Fire.
  8. Reforestation and Afforestation.
  9. Check over Forest Clearance for Agricultural and Habitation Purposes.
  10. Proper Utilization of Forest and Forests Products.

Intext Questions:

Question : What are the negative factors that cause such fearful depletion of the flora and fauna?

Answer :
  • We have transformed nature into a resource obtaining factory. We take so much directly and indirectly from the forests and wildlife – wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, dyes, food, fuel, fodder, manure, etc.
  • The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was during the colonial period due to the expansion of the railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities.
  • Even after Independence, agricultural expansion continues to be one of the major causes of depletion of forest resources.
  • Deforestation

Question : Have you noticed any activity which leads to the loss of biodiversity around you? Write a note on it and suggest some measures to prevent it.

Answer : Activities which lead to the loss of biodiversity are:

  • The transformation of the natural areas results into the loss of the vegetable species and decrease in the animal species associated to them.
  • Species originating from a particular area, introduced into new natural environments can lead to different forms of imbalance in the ecological equilibrium.
  • Human activity influences the natural environment producing negative, direct or indirect, effects that alter the flow of energy, the chemical and physical constitution of the environment and abundance of the species;
  • Heating of the Earth’s surface affects biodiversity because it endangers all the species that are adapted to the cold due to the latitude (the Polar species) or the altitude (mountain species).
  • When the activities connected with capturing and harvesting (hunting, fishing, farming) a renewable natural resource in a particular area is excessively intense, the resource itself may become exhausted.


  • Maintain wetlands by conserving water and reducing irrigation. Avoid draining water bodies on your property.
  • Leave native plants undisturbed, and landscape using native trees and vegetation. Native plants are well adapted to local conditions and provide a low maintenance, drought resistant garden and can prevent local flooding.
  • Use pesticides that have minimal residual effects.
  • Don’t deteriorate the environment.
  • Try to avoid wastage of energy.
  • Recycle, reuse and reduce. Recycling decreases pollution by decreasing energy, electricity, and water consumption and the need for landfills.
  • Use natural products and avoid buying things which are made from animal skins, shells, feathers, etc.
  • Encourage and support local government initiatives that protect habitat and decrease threats to biodiversity.

Question : Collect more information on the wildlife sanctuaries and national parks of India and cite their locations on the map of India.

Answer : National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries are protected areas declared by Government with the primary objective to preserve wildlife, save flora & fauna and restore the natural ecological balance. There are 103 National Parks and 544 Wildlife Sanctuaries in India. Madhya Pradesh and Andaman & Nicobar Islands have the maximum number of National Parks (9 each). The spectacular natural beauty across the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in India attracts millions of tourists every year.

Question :Write a short essay on any practices which you may have observed and practiced in your everyday lives that conserve and protect the environment around you.

Answer :
  • Reduce, reuse, and recycle. Cut down on what you throw away. Follow the three ""R"s" to conserve natural resources and landfill space.
  • Conserve water. The less water you use, the less runoff and wastewater that eventually end up in the ocean.
  • Shop wisely. Buy less plastic and bring a reusable shopping bag.
  • Use long-lasting light bulbs. Energy efficient light bulbs reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Conserve electricity. Turn the light switch off when you leave the room!
  • Plant a tree. Trees provide food and oxygen. They help save energy, clean the air, and help combat climate change.
  • Bike more. Drive less.
  • Volunteer. Volunteer for cleanups in your community. You can get involved in protecting your watershed, too.
  • Educate. When you further your own education, you can help others understand the importance and value of our natural resources.
  • Don't send chemicals into our waterways. Choose non-toxic chemicals in the home and office.

Question : Can you find out the reasons for the above mentioned problems?


Answer :India’s special crocodilian Gharial population is the biggest concern for the wildlife lovers, Due to the river pollution, loss of riverine habitat and fishing gill nets, the Gharial came to the brink of extinction and fall in the critically endangered category.

The same goes for the birds as these birds which fed on the fishes of Yamuna river were contaminated by the harmful pollutants released into the rivers.